 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
Permanence and Stable Periodic Solution for a Discrete Competitive System with Multidelays
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2009, Article number: 375486 (2010)
Abstract
The permanence and the existence of periodic solution for a discrete nonautonomous competitive system with multidelays are considered. Also the stability of the periodic solution is discussed. Numerical examples are given to confirm the theoretical results.
1. Introduction
In this paper, we consider the permanence and the periodic solution for the following discrete competitive model with species and several delays:
In model (1.1), is the population density of the species at n th time step (year, month, day), represents the intrinsic growth rate of species at n th time step, and reflects the interspecific or intraspecific competitive intensity of species to species with time delay at n th time step.
As a special case of model (1.1), the following discrete model
has been investigated as the discrete analogue of the wellknown continuous Logistic model [1–4]:
And many complex dynamics, such as periodic cycles and chaotic behavior, were found in model (1.2) [2, 4, 5].
It is well known that the reproduction rate and the carrying capacity are intensively influenced by the environment; therefore the following model with time varying coefficients
was developed from model (1.2) and has been studied recently in [6].
An equivalent version of model (1.4) can be written as
Models (1.2), (1.4), and (1.5) are both considering of ecosystems for singlespecies. As a result of coupling equations both described by model (1.5), one can write out the following model for species:
If () is nonnegative sequences, model (1.6) represents the competitive ecosystem of LotkaVolterra type with species [7]. When , model (1.6) was introduced in [8] and recently has been studied in [9]. The autonomous case of (1.6) when has been studied in [10] and the following permanent result was obtained [10, Theorem 2].
Lemma 1.1.
If , then (1.6) is permanent.
It is well known that the effect of time delay plays an important role in population dynamics [11]; therefore, model (1.1) can be constructed from model (1.6) while considering the effect of time delays. Obviously, models (1.2), (1.4), and (1.5) are special cases of model (1.1) for singlespecies. Model (1.6) is also special case of model (1.1) without delays. Some aspects of model (1.1) has been discussed in the literature. For example, the global asymptotical stability of (1.1) with and the permanence of (1.1) with were investigated in [12]. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the permanence of the autonomous case of (1.1) with twospecies
were obtained in [13].
In theoretical population dynamics, it is important whether or not all species in multispecies ecosystem can be permanent [14, 15]. Many permanent or persistent results have been obtained for continuous biomathematical models that are governed by differential equation(s). For example, one can refer to [11, 16–21] and references cited therein. However, permanent results on the delayed discretetime competitive model of LotkaVolterra type are rarely few [13, 22], especially with species (). In this manuscript, first we will obtain new sufficient conditions for the permanence of (1.1) when .
The population densities observed in the field are usually oscillatory. What cause such phenomenon is a purpose to model population interactions [9, 23]. We will further investigate the existence and stability of the periodic solution for model (1.1) under the assumption that the coefficients of model (1.1) are all periodic with a common period.
The results obtained in this paper are complements to those related with model (1.1). We give some examples to show that the results here are not enclosed by other earlier works. The paper is organized as follows. In next section, we give some preliminaries and obtain the sufficient conditions which guarantee the permanence of model (1.1). In Section 3, we prove the existence of the positive periodic solution of model (1.1) and obtain the sufficient conditions for the stability of the periodic solution.
2. Preliminaries and Permanence
Due to the biological backgrounds of model (1.1), throughout this paper we make the following basic assumptions.

(H1)
and () are sequences bounded from below and from above by positive constants.

(H2)
() and () are nonnegative and bounded sequences.

(H3)
The initial values are given by .
Next we give some definitions that will be be used in this paper. We write and , .
Definition 2.1.
We say that is a solution of (1.1) with initial values () if satisfies (1.1) for and .
Under assumptions (), (), and (), solutions of model (1.1) are all consisting of positive sequences; such solution will be called positive solution of (1.1).
Definition 2.2.
Model (1.1) is said to be permanent if there are positive constants and such that
for each positive solution of model (1.1).
Definition 2.3.
System (1.1) is strongly persistent if each positive solution of (1.1) satisfies
Definition 2.4.
If each positive solution of model (1.1) satisfies that as , we say that the solution of (1.1) is globally attractive or globally stable, where is the maximum norm of the Banach space .
From Definitions 2.2 and 2.3, we know that model (1.1) is strongly persistent if model (1.1) is permanent. For the sake of simplicity, we introduce the following notations for any sequences :
Next we will discuss the sufficient conditions which guarantee that system (1.1) with initial conditions () is permanent. In the following, we denote as the solutions of system (1.1) with initial conditions (). Clearly, is positive sequence.
Lemma 2.5.
If satisfies
for , where is a positive sequence bounded from below and from above by positive constants and is a positive integer, then there exists positive constant such that
and .
Proof.
The proof of this lemma is similar to that of Lemma 1 in [24]; we omit the details.
Lemma 2.6.
If satisfies
for , where and are positive sequences bounded from below and from above by positive constants, is a positive integer and . Further, assume that and , then
Proof.
The proof of this lemma is similar to that of Lemma 2 in [24]; we omit the details.
In the following, we denote
Theorem 2.7.
Assume that
then model (1.1) is permanent.
Proof.
From model (1.1), we have
for . Therefore, by Lemma 2.5 there exists positive constants such that
Hence,
for all large and (). By Lemma 2.6, () provided that
where is a positive constant. Note that for , then
That is, (2.13) is satisfied if (2.9) holds. Moreover, if (2.9) holds, then and ().
Next we give an example to show the feasibility of the conditions of Theorem 2.7. This example also shows that Theorem 2.7 is not enclosed by other related works.
Example 2.8.
Let us consider the following competitive model:
where , , .
From (2.15), , , and hence, (2.9) is satisfied. According to Theorem 2.7, system (2.15) is permanent (see Figure 1).
Remark 2.9.
The permanence of system (2.15) was also investigated in [12]. But our conditions which guarantee the permanence of (2.15) are different from that of [12, Lemma 5]. Adopting the same notations as [12, Lemma 5], we have , , and , , , , , , , , , . But , ; that is, the assumptions and of [12, Lemma 5] are not satisfied. Therefore, the permanence of system (2.15) cannot be obtained by [12, Lemma 5].
Remark 2.10.
The global asymptotical stability of model (1.1) is studied in [12] under the assumption that model (1.1) is strongly persistent. But the authors of [12] did not discuss the strong persistence of model (1.1) with species (). Theorem 2.7 in this paper gives sufficient conditions which guarantee the strong persistence of model (1.1).
3. Periodic Solution
In this section, we assume that the coefficients of model (1.1) are periodic with common period , that is,
The aim of this section is to show the existence of positive periodic solution of model (1.1) under assumption (3.1) and further find additional conditions for the global stability of this positive periodic solution.
Theorem 3.1.
Let the assumptions of Theorem 2.7 and (3.1) be satisfied; then there exists a positive periodic solution of model (1.1) with the period .
Proof.
Model (1.1) is permanent by Theorem 2.7. Therefore, model (1.1) is point dissipative. It follows from [25, Theorem 4.3] that there exists a positive periodic solution of model (1.1). Note (3.1), and the coefficients of model (1.1) are all periodic. Therefore, this solution is periodic.
Example 3.2.
Consider the following model:
Direct computation shows that the coefficients of model (3.2) satisfy the assumptions of Theorem 2.7. The coefficients of model (3.2) are all periodic with the common period 20. Hence, model (3.2) has a positive periodic solution by Theorem 3.1 (see Figures 2 and 3). Figures 4 and 5 show that the period of the sequences or is 20, respectively. More precisely, the values of sequence within a period are 0.7330, 0.7358, 0.7383, 0.7403, 0.7415, 0.7419, 0.7413, 0.7399, 0.7377, 0.7351, 0.7323, 0.7295, 0.7271, 0.7252, 0.7241, 0.7238, 0.7243, 0.7257, 0.7277, and 0.7302, respectively. The values of sequence within a period are 0.3869, 0.3846, 0.3821, 0.3796, 0.3775, 0.3759, 0.3750, 0.3749, 0.3756, 0.3770, 0.3790, 0.3813, 0.3838, 0.3862, 0.3882, 0.3898, 0.3907, 0.3908, 0.3902, and 0.3889, respectively.
Next, we study the global stability of the positive periodic solution obtained in Theorem 3.1.
Theorem 3.3.
Let the assumptions of Theorem 3.1 be satisfied; further, assume that
i , then for every positive solution of model (1.1), one has
where is the positive periodic solution obtained in Theorem 3.1.
Proof.
Let
where ) is the positive periodic solution of model (1.1). Model (1.1) can be rewritten as
Therefore,
where , , , .
In view of (3.3), we can choose such that
And from Theorem 2.7, there exists a positive integer such that
for and given as above (, ).
Notice that lies between and , and lies between and (, ), from (3.7), we have
for and .
Denote
We have . Notice that is arbitrarily given; from (3.10), we get
Therefore,
That is,
and (3.4) follows consequently.
References
Kocic VK, Ladas G: Global Behavior of Nonlinear Difference Equations of Higher Order with Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 1993.
May RM: Nonlinear problems in ecology. In Chaotic Behavior of Deterministic Systems. Edited by: Iooss G, Helleman R, Stora R. NorthHolland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 1983:515–563.
Lakshmikantham V, Trigiante D: Theory of Difference Equations: Numerical Methods and Applications, Mathematics in Science and Engineering. Volume 181. Academic Press, Boston, Mass, USA; 1988:x+242.
Hastings A: Population Biology: Concepts and Models. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1996.
Goh BS: Management and Analysis of Biological Populations. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 1980.
Zhou Z, Zou X: Stable periodic solutions in a discrete periodic logistic equation. Applied Mathematics Letters 2003,16(2):165–171. 10.1016/S08939659(03)800277
Wang W, Lu Z: Global stability of discrete models of LotkaVolterra type. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 1999,35(8):1019–1030. 10.1016/S0362546X(98)001126
May RM: Biological populations with nonoverlapping generations: stable points, stable cycles, and chaos. Science 1974,186(4164):645–647. 10.1126/science.186.4164.645
Chen Y, Zhou Z: Stable periodic solution of a discrete periodic LotkaVolterra competition system. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2003,277(1):358–366. 10.1016/S0022247X(02)00611X
Lu Z, Wang W: Permanence and global attractivity for LotkaVolterra difference systems. Journal of Mathematical Biology 1999,39(3):269–282. 10.1007/s002850050171
Kuang Y: Delay Differential Equations with Applications in Population Dynamics, Mathematics in Science and Engineering. Volume 191. Academic Press, Boston, Mass, USA; 1993:xii+398.
Wang W, Mulone G, Salemi F, Salone V: Global stability of discrete population models with time delays and fluctuating environment. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2001,264(1):147–167. 10.1006/jmaa.2001.7666
Saito Y, Ma W, Hara T: A necessary and sufficient condition for permanence of a LotkaVolterra discrete system with delays. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2001,256(1):162–174. 10.1006/jmaa.2000.7303
Hutson V, Schmitt K: Permanence and the dynamics of biological systems. Mathematical Biosciences 1992,111(1):1–71. 10.1016/00255564(92)90078B
Jansen VAA, Sigmund K: Shaken not stirred: on permanence in ecological communities. Theoretical Population Biology 1998,54(3):195–201. 10.1006/tpbi.1998.1384
Freedman HI, Ruan SG: Uniform persistence in functionaldifferential equations. Journal of Differential Equations 1995,115(1):173–192. 10.1006/jdeq.1995.1011
Hofbauer J, Kon R, Saito Y: Qualitative permanence of LotkaVolterra equations. Journal of Mathematical Biology 2008,57(6):863–881. 10.1007/s0028500801920
Cui J, Takeuchi Y, Lin Z: Permanence and extinction for dispersal population systems. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2004,298(1):73–93. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2004.02.059
Takeuchi Y, Cui J, Miyazaki R, Saito Y: Permanence of delayed population model with dispersal loss. Mathematical Biosciences 2006,201(1–2):143–156. 10.1016/j.mbs.2005.12.012
Zhang L, Teng Z: Permanence for a delayed periodic predatorprey model with prey dispersal in multipatches and predator densityindependent. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2008,338(1):175–193. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.05.016
Allen LJS: Persistence and extinction in singlespecies reactiondiffusion models. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 1983,45(2):209–227.
Muroya Y: Global attractivity for discrete models of nonautonomous logistic equations. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2007,53(7):1059–1073. 10.1016/j.camwa.2006.12.010
Itokazu T, Hamaya Y: Almost periodic solutions of preypredator discrete models with delay. Advances in Difference Equations 2009, 2009:19.
Yang X: Uniform persistence and periodic solutions for a discrete predatorprey system with delays. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2006,316(1):161–177. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.04.036
Hale J: Theory of Functional Differential Equations, Applied Mathematical Sciences. 2nd edition. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1977:x+365.
Acknowledgments
The research is supported by the foundation of Jiangsu Polytechnic University (ZMF09020020). The author would like to thank the editor Professor Jianshe Yu and the referees for their helpful comments and suggestions which greatly improved the presentation of the paper.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Corresponding author
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Wu, C. Permanence and Stable Periodic Solution for a Discrete Competitive System with Multidelays. Adv Differ Equ 2009, 375486 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/375486
Received:
Revised:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/375486
Keywords
 Positive Constant
 Periodic Solution
 Global Stability
 Global Asymptotical Stability
 Positive Sequence