- Research Article
- Open access
- Published:

# On Approximate Cubic Homomorphisms

*Advances in Difference Equations*
**volumeÂ 2009**, ArticleÂ number:Â 618463 (2009)

## Abstract

We investigate the generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of the system of functional equations: , , on Banach algebras. Indeed we establish the superstability of this system by suitable control functions.

## 1. Introduction

A definition of stability in the case of homomorphisms between metric groups was suggested by a problem by Ulam [2] in 1940. Let be a group and let be a metric group with the metric . Given , does there exist a such that if a mapping satisfies the inequality for all , then there exists a homomorphism with for all ? In this case, the equation of homomorphism is called stable. On the other hand, we are looking for situations when the homomorphisms are stable, that is, if a mapping is an approximate homomorphism, then there exists an exact homomorphism near it. The concept of stability for a functional equation arises when we replace the functional equation by an inequality which acts as a perturbation of the equation. In 1941, Hyers [3] gave a positive answer to the question of Ulam for Banach spaces. Let be a mapping between Banach spaces such that

for all and for some . Then there exists a unique additive mapping satisfying

for all . Moreover, if is continuous in for each fixed , then the mapping is linear. Rassias [4] succeeded in extending the result of Hyers' theorem by weakening the condition for the Cauchy difference controlled by , to be unbounded. This condition has been assumed further till now, through the complete Hyers direct method, in order to prove linearity for generalized Hyers-Ulam stability problem forms. A number of mathematicians were attracted to the pertinent stability results of Rassias [4], and stimulated to investigate the stability problems of functional equations. The stability phenomenon that was introduced and proved by Rassias is called Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability. Then the stability problems of several functional equations have been extensively investigated by a number of authors and there are many interesting results concerning this problem, see [5â€“13].

Bourgin [14] is the first mathematician dealing with stability of (ring) homomorphism . The topic of approximate homomorphisms was studied by a number of mathematicians, see [15â€“22] and references therein.

Jun and Kim [1] introduced the following functional equation:

and they established the general solution and generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability problem for this functional equation. It is easy to see that the function is a solution of the functional equation (1.3) Thus, it is natural that (1.3) is called a cubic functional equation and every solution of the cubic functional equation is said to be a cubic function.

Let be a ring. Then a mapping is called a cubic homomorphism if is a cubic function satisfying

for all For instance, let be commutative, then the mapping defined by is a cubic homomorphism. It is easy to see that a cubic homomorphism is a ring homomorphism if and only if it is zero function. In this paper, we study the stability of cubic homomorphisms on Banach algebras. Indeed, we investigate the generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of the system of functional equations:

on Banach algebras. To this end, we need two control functions for our stability. One control function for (1.3) and an other control function for (1.4). So this is the main difference between our hypothesis (where two-degree freedom appears in the election for two control functions and in Theorem 2.1 in what follows), and the conditions (with one control function) that appear, for example, in [1, Theorem â€‰3.1].

## 2. Main Results

In the following we suppose that is a normed algebra, is a Banach algebra, and is a mapping from into , and are maps from into . Also, we put for

Theorem 2.1.

Let

for all Assume that the series

converges, and that

for all . Then there exists a unique cubic homomorphism such that

for all .

Proof.

Setting in (2.2) yields

and then dividing by in (2.6), we obtain

for all . Now by induction we have

In order to show that the functions are a convergent sequence, we use the Cauchy convergence criterion. Indeed, replace by and divide by in (2.8), where is an arbitrary positive integer. We find that

for all positive integers . Hence by the Cauchy criterion, the limit exists for each . By taking the limit as in (2.8), we see that and (2.5) holds for all . If we replace by and by respectively, in (2.2) and divide by , we see that

Taking the limit as , we find that satisfies (1.3) [1, Theorem â€‰3.1]. On the other hand we have

for all We find that satisfies (1.4). To prove the uniqueness property of , let be a function satisfing and Since are cubic, then we have

for all , hence,

By taking we get

Corollary 2.2.

Let and be nonnegative real numbers, and let . Suppose that

for all . Then there exists a unique cubic homomorphism such that

for all .

Proof.

In Theorem 2.1, let and for all

Corollary 2.3.

Let and be nonnegative real numbers. Suppose that

for all . Then there exists a unique cubic homomorphism such that

for all .

Proof.

The proof follows from Corollary 2.2.

Corollary 2.4.

Let and let be a positive real number. Suppose that

for all Moreover, suppose that

and that

for all Then is a cubic homomorphism.

Proof.

Letting in (2.20), we get that So by , in (2.20) we get for all By using induction we have

for all and On the other hand, by Theorem 2.1, the mapping defined by

is a cubic homomorphism. Therefore it follows from (2.21) that Hence it is a cubic homomorphism.

Corollary 2.5.

Let and . Let

for all Moreover, suppose that

and that

for all Then is a cubic homomorphism.

Proof.

If , then by Corollary 2.4 we get the result. If the following results from Theorem 2.1, by putting and for all

Corollary 2.6.

Let and be a positive real number. Let

for all Then is a cubic homomorphism.

Proof.

Let Then by Corollary 2.4, we get the result.

Theorem 2.7.

Let

for all . Assume that the series

converges and that

for all . Then there exists a unique cubic homomorphism such that

for all .

Proof.

Setting in (2.28) yields

Replacing by in (2.32), we get

for all . By (2.33) we use iterative methods and induction on to prove the following relation

In order to show that the functions are a convergent sequence, replace by in (2.34), and then multiply by , where is an arbitrary positive integer. We find that

for all positive integers. Hence by the Cauchy criterion the limit exists for each . By taking the limit as in (2.34), we see that and (2.31) holds for all . The rest of proof is similar to the proof of Theorem 2.1.

Corollary 2.8.

Let and be a positive real number. Let

for all Moreover, suppose that

for all Then is a cubic homomorphism.

Proof.

Letting in (2.38), we get that So by , in (2.38) we get for all By using induction, we have

for all and On the other hand, by Theorem â€‰2.8, the mapping defined by

is a cubic homomorphism. Therefore, it follows from (2.39) that Hence is a cubic homomorphism.

Example 2.9.

Let

then is a Banach algebra equipped with the usual matrix-like operations and the following norm:

Let

and we define by and

for all Then we have

Thus the limit exists. Also,

Furthermore,

Hence is cubic homomorphism.

Also from this example, it is clear that the superstability of the system of functional equations

with the control functions in Corollaries 2.4, 2.5 and 2.6 does not hold.

## References

Jun KW, Kim HM:

**The generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of a cubic functional equation.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2002,**274**(2):267-278.Ulam SM:

*A Collection of Mathematical Problems*. Interscience, New York, NY, USA; 1960.Hyers DH:

**On the stability of the linear functional equation.***Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America*1941,**27:**222-224. 10.1073/pnas.27.4.222Rassias ThM:

**On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces.***Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1978,**72:**297-300. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1978-0507327-1Faiziev VA, Rassias ThM, Sahoo PK:

**The space of****-additive mappings on semigroups.***Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*2002,**354**(11):4455-4472. 10.1090/S0002-9947-02-03036-2Forti GL:

**An existence and stability theorem for a class of functional equations.***Stochastica*1980,**4:**23-30. 10.1080/17442508008833155Forti GL:

**Comments on the core of the direct method for proving Hyers-Ulam stability of functional equations.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2004,**295:**127-133. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2004.03.011Hyers DH, Isac G, Rassias ThM:

*Stability of Functional Equations in Several Variables*. BirkhÃ¤user, Boston, Mass, USA; 1998.Isac G, Rassias ThM:

**On the Hyers-Ulam stability of a cubic functional equation.***Journal of Approximation Theory*1993,**72**(2):131-137. 10.1006/jath.1993.1010Maligranda L:

**A result of Tosio Aoki about a generalization of Hyers-Ulam stability of additive functionsâ€”a question of priority.***Aequationes Mathematicae*2008,**75:**289-296. 10.1007/s00010-007-2892-8Rassias ThM, Tabor J:

*Stability of Mappings of Hyers-Ulam Type*. Hadronic Press, Palm Harbor, Fla, USA; 1994.Rassias ThM:

**On a modified Hyers-Ulam sequence.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1991,**158:**106-113. 10.1016/0022-247X(91)90270-ARassias ThM:

**On the stability of functional equations originated by a problem of Ulam.***Mathematica*2002,**44(67)**(1):39-75.Bourgin DG:

**Classes of transformations and bordering transformations.***Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*1951,**57:**223-237. 10.1090/S0002-9904-1951-09511-7Badora R:

**On approximate ring homomorphisms.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2002,**276:**589-597. 10.1016/S0022-247X(02)00293-7Baker J, Lawrence J, Zorzitto F:

**The stability of the equation**.*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1979,**74**(2):242-246.Eshaghi Gordji M, Bavand Savadkouhi M:

**Approximation of generalized homomorphisms in quasi-Banach algebras.**to appear in*Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii Ovidius Constanta*Eshaghi Gordji M, Karimi T, Kaboli Gharetapeh S:

**Approximately****-Jordan homomorphisms on Banach algebras.***Journal of Inequalities and Applications*2009,**2009:**-8.Hyers DH, Rassias ThM:

**Approximate homomorphisms.***Aequationes Mathematicae*1992,**44:**125-153. 10.1007/BF01830975Park C:

**Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of homomorphisms in quasi-Banach algebras.***Bulletin des Sciences MathÃ©matiques*2008,**132**(2):87-96.Rassias ThM:

**The problem of S. M. Ulam for approximately multiplicative mappings.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2000,**246**(2):352-378. 10.1006/jmaa.2000.6788Rassias ThM:

**On the stability of functional equations and a problem of Ulam.***Acta Applicandae Mathematicae*2000,**62**(1):23-130. 10.1023/A:1006499223572

## Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the referees for their valuable suggestions. Also, M. B. Savadkouhi would like to thank the Office of Gifted Students at Semnan University for its financial support.

## Author information

### Authors and Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Eshaghi Gordji, M., Bavand Savadkouhi, M. On Approximate Cubic Homomorphisms.
*Adv Differ Equ* **2009**, 618463 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/618463

Received:

Revised:

Accepted:

Published:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/618463