- Research Article
- Open access
- Published:

# A New Approach to -Bernoulli Numbers and -Bernoulli Polynomials Related to -Bernstein Polynomials

*Advances in Difference Equations*
**volume 2010**, Article number: 951764 (2011)

## Abstract

We present a new generating function related to the -Bernoulli numbers and -Bernoulli polynomials. We give a new construction of these numbers and polynomials related to the second-kind Stirling numbers and -Bernstein polynomials. We also consider the generalized -Bernoulli polynomials attached to Dirichlet's character and have their generating function . We obtain distribution relations for the -Bernoulli polynomials and have some identities involving -Bernoulli numbers and polynomials related to the second kind Stirling numbers and -Bernstein polynomials. Finally, we derive the -extensions of zeta functions from the Mellin transformation of this generating function which interpolates the -Bernoulli polynomials at negative integers and is associated with -Bernstein polynomials.

## 1. Introduction, Definitions, and Notations

Let be the complex number field. We assume that with and that the -number is defined by in this paper.

Many mathematicians have studied -Bernoulli, -Euler polynomials, and related topics (see [1–23]). It is known that the Bernoulli polynomials are defined by

and that are called the th Bernoulli numbers.

The recurrence formula for the classical Bernoulli numbers is as follows,

(see [1, 3, 23]). The -extension of the following recurrence formula for the Bernoulli numbers is

with the usual convention of replacing by (see [5, 7, 14]).

Now, by introducing the following well-known identities

(see [6]).

The generating functions of the second kind Stirling numbers and -Bernstein polynomials, respectively, can be defined as follows,

Throughout this paper, , , , , and will respectively denote the ring of rational integers, the field of rational numbers, the ring -adic rational integers, the field of -adic rational numbers, and the completion of the algebraic closure of . Let be the normalized exponential valuation of such that . If , we normally assume or so that for (see [7–19]).

In this study, we present a new generating function related to the -Bernoulli numbers and -Bernoulli polynomials and give a new construction of these numbers and polynomials related to the second kind Stirling numbers and -Bernstein polynomials. We also consider the generalized -Bernoulli polynomials attached to Dirichlet's character and have their generating function. We obtain distribution relations for the -Bernoulli polynomials and have some identities involving -Bernoulli numbers and polynomials related to the second kind Stirling numbers and -Bernstein polynomials. Finally, we derive the -extensions of zeta functions from the Mellin transformation of this generating function which interpolates the -Bernoulli polynomials at negative integers and are associated with -Bernstein polynomials.

## 2. New Approach to -Bernoulli Numbers and Polynomials

Let be the set of natural numbers and . For with , let us define the -Bernoulli polynomials as follows,

Note that

where are classical Bernoulli polynomials. In the special case , are called the th -Bernoulli numbers. That is,

From (2.1) and (2.3), we note that

From (2.1) and (2.3), we can easily derive the following equation:

Equations (2.4) and (2.5), we see that and

Therefore, we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 2.1.

For , one has

with the usual convention of replacing and .

From (2.1), one notes that

Therefore, one obtains the following theorem.

Theorem 2.2.

For , one has

By (2.1), one sees that

By (2.1) and (2.10), one obtains the following theorem.

Theorem 2.3.

For , one has

From (2.11) one can derive that, for ,

By (2.12), one sees that, for ,

Therefore, one obtains the following theorem.

Theorem 2.4.

For , one has

In (2.9), substitute instead of , one obtains

which is the relation between -Bernoulli polynomials, -Bernoulli numbers, and -Bernstein polynomials. In (1.5), substitute instead of , one gets

In (2.16), substitute instead of , and putting the result in (2.15), one has the following theorem.

Theorem 2.5.

For and , one has

where and are the second kind Stirling numbers and -Bernstein polynomials, respectively.

Let be Dirichlet's character with . Then, one defines the generalized -Bernoulli polynomials attached to as follows,

In the special case , are called the th generalized -Bernoulli numbers attached to . Thus, the generating function of the generalized -Bernoulli numbers attached to are as follows,

By (2.1) and (2.18), one sees that

Therefore, one obtains the following theorem.

Theorem 2.6.

For and , one has

By (2.18) and (2.19), one sees that

Hence,

For , one now considers the Mellin transformation for the generating function of . That is,

for , and .

From (2.24), one defines the zeta type function as follows,

Note that is an analytic function in the whole complex -plane. Using the Laurent series and the Cauchy residue theorem, one has

By the same method, one can also obtain the following equations:

For ,one defines Dirichlet type --function as

where . Note that is also a holomorphic function in the whole complex -plane. From the Laurent series and the Cauchy residue theorem, one can also derive the following equation:

In (2.23), substitute instead of , one obtains

which is the relation between the th generalized -Bernoulli numbers and -Bernoulli polynomials attached to and -Bernstein polynomials. From (2.16), one has the following theorem.

Theorem 2.7.

For and , one has

One now defines particular -zeta function as follows,

From (2.32), one has

where is given by (2.25). By (2.26), one has

Therefore, one obtains the following theorem.

Theorem 2.8.

For , we have

## References

Açıkgöz M, Aracı S:

**The relations between Bernoulli, Bernstein and Euler polynomials.***Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics (ICNAAM '10), March 2010, Rhodes, Greece, AIP*Açıkgöz M, Şimşek Y:

**A new generating function of****-Bernstein-type polynomials and their interpolation function.***Abstract and Applied Analysis*2010,**2010:**-12.Açıkgöz M, Şimşek Y:

**On multiple interpolation functions of the Norlund-type Euler polynomials.***Abstract Applied Analysis*2009,**2009:**-14.Açıkgöz M, Aracı S:

**On the generating function of Bernstein polynomials.***Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics (ICNAAM '10), March 2010, Rhodes, Greece, AIP*Carlitz L:

**-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials.***Duke Mathematical Journal*1948,**15:**987-1000. 10.1215/S0012-7094-48-01588-9Kac V, Cheung P:

*Quantum Calculus, Universitext*. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2001:x+112.Kim T:

**A new approach to****-zeta function.***Advanced Studies in Contemporary Mathematics*2005,**11**(2):157-162.Kim T:

**-Volkenborn integration.***Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics*2002,**9**(3):288-299.Kim T:

**On****-adic**-**-functions and sums of powers.***Discrete Mathematics*2002,**252**(1–3):179-187. 10.1016/S0012-365X(01)00293-XKim T:

**-Bernoulli numbers and polynomials associated with Gaussian binomial coefficients.***Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics*2008,**15**(1):51-57.Kim T:

**Non-Archimedean****-integrals associated with multiple Changhee****-Bernoulli polynomials.***Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics*2003,**10**(1):91-98.Kim T:

**Power series and asymptotic series associated with the****-analog of the two-variable****-adic****-function.***Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics*2005,**12**(2):186-196.Kim T:

**On the****-extension of Euler and Genocchi numbers.***Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2007,**326**(2):1458-1465. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.03.037Kim T, Choi J, Kim Y-H:

**-Bernstein polynomials associated with****-Stirling numbers and Carlitz's****-Bernoulli numbers.**Abstract and Applied Analysis (in press)Kim T, Jang L-C, Yi H:

**A note on the modified****-Bernstein polynomials.***Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society*2010,**2010:**-12.Kim T:

**-Bernstein polynomials,****-Stirling numbers and****-Bernoulli polynomials.**http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.4547Kim T, Jang L-C, Kim Y, Choi J:

**On p-adic analogue of****-Bernstein polynomials and related integrals.***Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society*2010,**2010:**-9.Kim T, Choi J, Kim Y-H:

**Some identities on the****-Bernstein polynomials,****-Stirling numbers and****-Bernoulli numbers.***Advanced Studies in Contemporary Mathematics*2010,**20:**335-341.Kim T:

**Analytic continuation of multiple****-zeta functions and their values at negative integers.***Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics*2004,**11**(1):71-76.Kim T:

**Note on the Euler****-zeta functions.***Journal of Number Theory*2009,**129**(7):1798-1804. 10.1016/j.jnt.2008.10.007Kim T:

**Barnes-type multiple****-zeta functions and****-Euler polynomials.***Journal of Physics A*2010,**43**(25):-11.Kim T, Rim S-H, Son J-W, Jang L-C:

**On the values of****-analogue of zeta and****-functions. I.***Algebra Colloquium*2002,**9**(2):233-240.Rademacher H:

*Topics in Analytic Number Theory*. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1973:ix+320.

## Author information

### Authors and Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Açikgöz, M., Erdal, D. & Araci, S. A New Approach to -Bernoulli Numbers and -Bernoulli Polynomials Related to -Bernstein Polynomials.
*Adv Differ Equ* **2010**, 951764 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/951764

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/951764