Abstract
We investigate some new nonlinear integral inequalities in two independent variables. The inequalities given here can be used as tools in the qualitative theory of certain nonlinear partial differential equations.
Advances in Difference Equations volume 2010, Article number: 984141 (2010)
We investigate some new nonlinear integral inequalities in two independent variables. The inequalities given here can be used as tools in the qualitative theory of certain nonlinear partial differential equations.
It is well known that the integral inequalities involving functions of one and more than one independent variables which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions play a fundamental role in the development of the theory of differential equations. In the past few years, a number of integral inequalities had been established by many scholars, which are motivated by certain applications. For details, we refer to literatures [1–10] and the references therein. In this paper we investigate some new nonlinear integral inequalities in two independent variables, which can be used as tools in the qualitative theory of certain partial differential equations.
In what follows, denotes the set of real numbers and is the given subset of . The first-order partial derivatives of a defined for with respect to and are denoted by , and respectively. Throughout this paper, all the functions which appear in the inequalities are assumed to be real-valued and all the integrals involved exist on the respective domains of their definitions, denotes the class of all continuous functions defined on set with range in the set , and are constants, and .
We firstly introduce two lemmas, which are useful in our main results.
Lemma 2.1 (Bernoulli's inequality [11]).
Let and . Then
Lemma 2.2 (see [7]).
Let be nonnegative and continuous functions defined for
Assume that is nondecreasing for . If
for , then
for .
Assume that is nonincreasing for . If
for , then
for .
Next, we establish our main results.
Theorem 2.3.
Let and .
If
then
where
If
then
where
and is defined by (2.7).
Proof.
We only give the proof of (i). The proof of (ii) can be completed by following the proof of (i).
Define a function by
Then can be restated as
Using Lemma 2.1, from (2.9), we easily obtain
Combining (2.8), (2.9), and (2.11), we have
where and are defined by (2.6) and (2.7), respectively. Obviously, is nonnegative, continuous, nondecreasing in , and nonincreasing in for .
Firstly, we assume that for . From (2.12), we easily observe that
Letting
we easily see that is nonincreasing in , and
Therefore,
Treating , , fixed in (2.16), dividing both sides of (2.16) by , setting , and integrating the resulting inequality from 0 to , we have
It follows from (2.15) and (2.17) that
Therefore, the desired inequality (2.5) follows from (2.10) and (2.18).
If is nonnegative, we carry out the above procedure with instead of , where is an arbitrary small constant, and subsequently pass to the limit as to obtain (2.5). This completes the proof.
Theorem 2.4.
Assume that , and . Let , and
for , where .
If
then
where
If
then
where
and is defined by (2.22).
Proof.
We only prove the part (i). The proof of (ii) can be completed by following the proof of (i).
Define a function by
Then, as in the proof of Theorem 2.3, we obtain (2.9)–(2.11). Therefore, we have
It follows from (2.23)–(2.25) that
where and are defined by (2.21) and (2.22), respectively.
It is obvious that is nonnegative, continuous, nondecreasing in , and nonincreasing in for . By following the proof of Theorem 2.3, from (2.26), we have
Combining (2.10) and (2.27), we obtain the desired inequality (2.20). The proof is complete.
Theorem 2.5.
Let , and be the same as in Theorem 2.4, and .
Assume that is nondecreasing in , and the condition (2.19) holds. If
then
where
Assume that is nonincreasing in , and the condition (2.19) holds. If
then
where
Proof. (i) Define a function by
where
Then can be restated as
Noting the assumption that is nondecreasing in , we easily see that is a nonnegative and nondecreasing function in Therefore, treating , fixed in (2.34) and using part (i) of Lemma 2.2 to (2.34), we get
that is,
where is defined by (2.29). Using Lemma 2.1, from (2.36) we have
Combining (2.33) and (2.38), and noting the hypotheses (2.19), we obtain
where and are defined by (2.30) and (2.31), respectively.
It is obvious that is nonnegative, continuous, nondecreasing in and nonincreasing in for . By following the proof of Theorem 2.3, from (2.39), we obtain
Obviously, the desired inequality (2.28) follows from (2.37) and (2.40).
Noting the assumption that is nonincreasing in and using the part (ii) of Lemma 2.2, we can complete the proof by following the proof of (i) with suitable changes. Therefore, the details are omitted here.
By using the ideas of the proofs of Theorems 2.5 and 2.3, we easily prove the following theorem.
Theorem 2.6.
Let , and .
Assume that is nondecreasing in . If
then
where
and is defined by (2.29).
Assume that is nonincreasing in . If
then
where
and is defined by (25').
Remark 2.7.
Noting that and are constants, and , we can obtain many special integral inequalities by using our main results. For example, let , and , respectively; from Theorem 2.3, we obtain the following corollaries.
Corollary 2.8.
Let and .
If
then
where
If
then
where
and is defined by (2.45).
Corollary 2.9.
Let and .
If
then
where
If
then
where
Remark 2.10.
If we add to the assumptions of [7, Theorems 2.2–2.4], then we easily see that [7, Theorems 2.2–2.4] are special cases of Theorems 2.3, 2.5, and 2.6, respectively. Therefore, our paper gives some extensions of the results of [7] in a sense.
In this section, using Theorem 2.3, we obtain the bound on the solution of a nonlinear differential equation.
Example 3.1.
Consider the partial differential equation:
where , and is a real constant, and is a constant.
Suppose that
where and for , and is a constant. Let be a solution of (3.1) for ; then
where
In fact, if is a solution of (3.1), then it can be written as (see [1, page 80])
for .
It follows from (3.2) and (3.5) that
Now, a suitable application of part (ii) of Theorem 2.3 to (3.6) yields the required estimate in (3.3).
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This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10971018), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2009AM005), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (20080440633), Shanghai Postdoctoral Scientific Program (09R21415200), the Project of Science and Technology of the Education Department of Shandong Province (J08LI52), and the Doctoral Foundation of Binzhou University (2006Y01).
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Li, W. Some Nonlinear Integral Inequalities in Two Independent Variables. Adv Differ Equ 2010, 984141 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/984141
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/984141