 Research Article
 Open Access
 Published:
Existence of Nonoscillatory Solutions to SecondOrder Neutral Delay Dynamic Equations on Time Scales
Advances in Difference Equations volumeÂ 2009, ArticleÂ number:Â 562329 (2009)
Abstract
We employ Kranoselskii's fixed point theorem to establish the existence of nonoscillatory solutions to the secondorder neutral delay dynamic equation on a time scale T. To dwell upon the importance of our results, one interesting example is also included.
1. Introduction
The theory of time scales, which has recently received a lot of attention, was introduced by Hilger in his Ph.D. Thesis in 1988 in order to unify continuous and discrete analysis (see Hilger [1]). Several authors have expounded on various aspects of this new theory; see the survey paper by Agarwal et al. [2] and references cited therein. A book on the subject of time scales, by Bohner and Peterson [3], summarizes and organizes much of the time scale calculus; we refer also to the last book by Bohner and Peterson [4] for advances in dynamic equations on time scales. For the notation used below we refer to the next section that provides some basic facts on time scales extracted from Bohner and Peterson [3].
In recent years, there has been much research activity concerning the oscillation of solutions of various equations on time scales, and we refer the reader to Erbe [5], Saker [6], and Hassan [7]. And there are some results dealing with the oscillation of the solutions of secondorder delay dynamic equations on time scales [8â€“22].
In this work, we will consider the existence of nonoscillatory solutions to the secondorder neutral delay dynamic equation of the form
on a time scale (an arbitrary closed subset of the reals).
The motivation originates from KulenoviÄ‡ and HadÅ¾iomerpahiÄ‡ [23] and Zhu and Wang [24]. In [23], the authors established some sufficient conditions for the existence of positive solutions of the delay equation
Recently, [24] established the existence of nonoscillatory solutions to the neutral equation
on a time scale
Neutral equations find numerous applications in natural science and technology. For instance, they are frequently used for the study of distributed networks containing lossless transmission lines. So, we try to establish some sufficient conditions for the existence of equations of (1.1). However, there are few papers to discuss the existence of nonoscillatory solutions for neutral delay dynamic equations on time scales.
Since we are interested in the nonoscillatory behavior of (1.1), we assume throughout that the time scale under consideration satisfies and
As usual, by a solution of (1.1) we mean a continuous function which is defined on and satisfies (1.1) for A solution of (1.1) is said to be eventually positive (or eventually negative) if there exists such that (or ) for all in A solution of (1.1) is said to be nonoscillatory if it is either eventually positive or eventually negative; otherwise, it is oscillatory.
2. Main Results
In this section, we establish the existence of nonoscillatory solutions to (1.1). For let and Further, let denote all continuous functions mapping into and
Endowed on with the norm () is a Banach space (see [24]). Let we say that is uniformly Cauchy if for any given there exists such that for any for all .
is said to be equicontinuous on if for any given there exists such that for any and with
Also, we need the following auxiliary results.
Lemma 2.1 (see [24, Lemma ]).
Suppose that is bounded and uniformly Cauchy. Further, suppose that is equicontinuous on for any Then is relatively compact.
Lemma 2.2 (see [25, Kranoselskii's fixed point theorem]).
Suppose that is a Banach space and is a bounded, convex, and closed subset of Suppose further that there exist two operators such that

(i)
for all

(ii)
is a contraction mapping;

(iii)
is completely continuous.
Then has a fixed point in
Throughout this section, we will assume in (1.1) that
, , = , = ,â€‰â€‰,, , , = , and there exists a function such that = , =
Theorem 2.3.
Assume that holds and Then (1.1) has an eventually positive solution.
Proof.
From the assumption we can choose large enough and positive constants and which satisfy the condition
such that
Furthermore, from we see that there exists with such that for
Define the Banach space as in (2.1) and let
It is easy to verify that is a bounded, convex, and closed subset of
Now we define two operators and as follows:
Next, we will show that and satisfy the conditions in Lemma 2.2.
We first prove that for any Note that for any For any and in view of (2.3), (2.4) and (2.6), we have
Similarly, we can prove that for any and Hence, for any

(ii)
We prove that is a contraction mapping. Indeed, for we have
(2.10)
for and
for Therefore, we have
for any Hence, is a contraction mapping.
We will prove that is a completely continuous mapping. First, by we know that maps into
Second, we consider the continuity of Let and as then and as for any Consequently, by (2.5) we have
for So, we obtain
which proves that is continuous on
Finally, we prove that is relatively compact. It is sufficient to verify that satisfies all conditions in Lemma 2.1. By the definition of we see that is bounded. For any take so that
For any and we have
Thus, is uniformly Cauchy.
The remainder is to consider the equicontinuous on for any Without loss of generality, we set For any we have for and
for
Now, we see that for any there exists such that when with
for all This means that is equicontinuous on for any
By means of Lemma 2.1, is relatively compact. From the above, we have proved that is a completely continuous mapping.
By Lemma 2.2, there exists such that Therefore, we have
which implies that is an eventually positive solution of (1.1). The proof is complete.
Theorem 2.4.
Assume that holds and Then (1.1) has an eventually positive solution.
Proof.
From the assumption we can choose large enough and positive constants and which satisfy the condition
such that
Furthermore, from we see that there exists with such that for
Define the Banach space as in (2.1) and let
It is easy to verify that is a bounded, convex, and closed subset of
Now we define two operators and as in Theorem 2.3 with replaced by The rest of the proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.3 and hence omitted. The proof is complete.
Theorem 2.5.
Assume that holds and Then (1.1) has an eventually positive solution.
Proof.
From the assumption we can choose large enough and positive constants and which satisfy the condition
such that
Furthermore, from we see that there exists with such that for
Define the Banach space as in (2.1) and let
It is easy to verify that is a bounded, convex, and closed subset of
Now we define two operators and as in Theorem 2.3 with replaced by The rest of the proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.3 and hence omitted. The proof is complete.
We will give the following example to illustrate our main results.
Example 2.6.
Consider the secondorder delay dynamic equations on time scales
where , , , , , , , Then , , Let It is easy to see that the assumption holds. By Theorem 2.3, (2.26) has an eventually positive solution.
References
Hilger S: Analysis on measure chainsâ€”a unified approach to continuous and discrete calculus. Results in Mathematics 1990,18(12):1856.
Agarwal R, Bohner M, O'Regan D, Peterson A: Dynamic equations on time scales: a survey. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 2002,141(12):126. 10.1016/S03770427(01)004320
Bohner M, Peterson A: Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Application. BirkhÃ¤user, Boston, Mass, USA; 2001:x+358.
Bohner M, Peterson A: Advances in Dynamic Equations on Time Scales. BirkhÃ¤user, Boston, Mass, USA; 2003:xii+348.
Erbe L: Oscillation results for secondorder linear equations on a time scale. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 2002,8(11):10611071. 10.1080/10236190290015317
Saker SH: Oscillation criteria of secondorder halflinear dynamic equations on time scales. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 2005,177(2):375387. 10.1016/j.cam.2004.09.028
Hassan TS: Oscillation criteria for halflinear dynamic equations on time scales. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2008,345(1):176185. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2008.04.019
Agarwal RP, Bohner M, Saker SH: Oscillation of second order delay dynamic equations. The Canadian Applied Mathematics Quarterly 2005,13(1):117.
Zhang BG, Shanliang Z: Oscillation of secondorder nonlinear delay dynamic equations on time scales. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2005,49(4):599609. 10.1016/j.camwa.2004.04.038
Åžahiner Y: Oscillation of secondorder delay differential equations on time scales. Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications 2005,63(5â€“7):e1073e1080.
Erbe L, Peterson A, Saker SH: Oscillation criteria for secondorder nonlinear delay dynamic equations. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2007,333(1):505522. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.10.055
Han Z, Sun S, Shi B: Oscillation criteria for a class of secondorder EmdenFowler delay dynamic equations on time scales. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2007,334(2):847858. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.01.004
Han Z, Shi B, Sun S: Oscillation criteria for secondorder delay dynamic equations on time scales. Advances in Difference Equations 2007, 2007:16.
Han Z, Shi B, Sun SR: Oscillation of secondorder delay dynamic equations on time scales. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni 2007,46(6):1013.
Sun SR, Han Z, Zhang CH: Oscillation criteria of secondorder EmdenFowler neutral delay dynamic equations on time scales. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University 2008,42(12):20702075.
Zhang M, Sun S, Han Z:Existence of positive solutions for multipoint boundary value problem with Laplacian on time scales. Advances in Difference Equations 2009, 2009:18.
Han Z, Li T, Sun S, Zhang C: Oscillation for secondorder nonlinear delay dynamic equations on time scales. Advances in Difference Equations 2009, 2009:13.
Sun S, Han Z, Zhang C: Oscillation of secondorder delay dynamic equations on time scales. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computing 2009,30(12):459468. 10.1007/s1219000801856
Zhao Y, Sun S: Research on SturmLiouville eigenvalue problems. Journal of University of Jinan 2009,23(3):299301.
Li T, Han Z: Oscillation of certain secondorder neutral difference equation with oscillating coefficient. Journal of University of Jinan 2009,23(4):410413.
Chen W, Han Z: Asymptotic behavior of several classes of differential equations. Journal of University of Jinan 2009,23(3):296298.
Li T, Han Z, Sun S: Oscillation of one kind of secondorder delay dynamic equations on time scales. Journal of Jishou University 2009,30(3):2427.
KulenoviÄ‡ MRS, HadÅ¾iomerspahiÄ‡ S: Existence of nonoscillatory solution of second order linear neutral delay equation. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 1998,228(2):436448. 10.1006/jmaa.1997.6156
Zhu ZQ, Wang QR: Existence of nonoscillatory solutions to neutral dynamic equations on time scales. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2007,335(2):751762. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.02.008
Chen YS:Existence of nonoscillatory solutions of th order neutral delay differential equations. Funkcialaj Ekvacioj 1992,35(3):557570.
Acknowledgments
The authors sincerely thank the reviewers for their valuable suggestions and useful comments that have lead to the present improved version of the original manuscript. This research is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (60774004), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (20080441126), Shandong Postdoctoral Funded Project (200802018), Shandong Research Funds (Y2008A28, Y2007A27), and also supported by the University of Jinan Research Funds for Doctors (B0621, XBS0843).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Corresponding author
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, T., Han, Z., Sun, S. et al. Existence of Nonoscillatory Solutions to SecondOrder Neutral Delay Dynamic Equations on Time Scales. Adv Differ Equ 2009, 562329 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/562329
Received:
Revised:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/562329
Keywords
 Banach Space
 Positive Constant
 Functional Equation
 Transmission Line
 Natural Science