- Research Article
- Open access
- Published:

# Almost Automorphic Solutions to Abstract Fractional Differential Equations

*Advances in Difference Equations*
**volumeÂ 2010**, ArticleÂ number:Â 508374 (2010)

## Abstract

A new and general existence and uniqueness theorem of almost automorphic solutions is obtained for the semilinear fractional differential equation , in complex Banach spaces, with *Stepanov-like almost automorphic coefficients*. Moreover, an application to a fractional relaxation-oscillation equation is given.

## 1. Introduction

In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of almost automorphic solutions to the following semilinear abstract fractional differential equation:

where , is a sectorial operator of type in a Banach space , and is Stepanov-like almost automorphic in satisfying some kind of Lipschitz conditions in . In addition, the fractional derivative is understood in the Riemann-Liouville's sense.

Recently, fractional differential equations have attracted more and more attentions (cf. [1â€“8] and references therein). On the other hand, the Stepanov-like almost automorphic problems have been studied by many authors (cf., e.g., [9, 10] and references therein). Stimulated by these works, in this paper, we study the almost automorphy of solutions to the fractional differential equation (1.1) with Stepanov-like almost automorphic coefficients. A new and general existence and uniqueness theorem of almost automorphic solutions to the equation is established. Moreover, an application to fractional relaxation-oscillation equation is given to illustrate the abstract result.

Throughout this paper, we denote by the set of positive integers, by the set of real numbers, and by a complex Banach space. In addition, we assume if there is no special statement. Next, let us recall some definitions of almost automorphic functions and Stepanov-like almost automorphic functions (for more details, see, e.g., [9â€“11]).

Definition 1.1.

A continuous function is called almost automorphic if for every real sequence , there exists a subsequence such that

is well defined for each and

for each . Denote by the set of all such functions.

Definition 1.2.

The Bochner transform , , , of a function on , with values in , is defined by

Definition 1.3.

The space of all Stepanov bounded functions, with the exponent , consists of all measurable functions on with values in such that

It is obvious that and whenever .

Definition 1.4.

The space of -almost automorphic functions (-a.a. for short) consists of all such that . In other words, a function is said to be -almost automorphic if its Bochner transform is almost automorphic in the sense that for every sequence of real numbers , there exist a subsequence and a function such that

for each .

Remark 1.5.

It is clear that if and is -almost automorphic, then is -almost automorphic. Also if , then is -almost automorphic for any .

Definition 1.6.

A function , with for each is said to be -almost automorphic in uniformly for , if for every sequence of real numbers , there exists a subsequence and a function with such that

for each and for each . We denote by the set of all such functions.

## 2. Almost Automorphic Solution

First, let us recall that a closed and densely defined linear operator is called sectorial if there exist , , and such that its resolvent exists outside the sector

Recently, in [3], Cuesta proved that if is sectorial operator for some (), , and , then there exits such that

where

where is a suitable path lying outside the sector .

In addition, by [2], we have the following definition.

Definition 2.1.

A function is called a mild solution of (1.1) if is integrable on for each and

Lemma 2.2.

Let be a strongly continuous family of bounded and linear operators such that

where is nonincreasing. Then, for each ,

Proof.

For each , let

In addition, for each , by the principle of uniform boundedness,

Fix and . We have

In view of , we get

which yields that

This means that is continuous.

Fix . By the definition of , for every sequence of real numbers , there exist a subsequence and a function such that

for each . Combining this with

we get

for each . Similar to the above proof, one can show that

for each . Therefore, for each .

Noticing that

we know that is uniformly convergent on . Thus

Remark 2.3.

For the case of , the conclusion of Lemma 2.2 was given in [1, Lemma ].

The following theorem will play a key role in the proof of our existence and uniqueness theorem.

Theorem 2.4 (see [11]).

Assume that

(i) with ;

(ii)there exists a nonnegative function with such that for all and ,

(iii) and is compact in .

Then there exists such that

Now, we are ready to present the existence and uniqueness theorem of almost automorphic solutions to (1.1).

Theorem 2.5.

Assume that is sectorial operator for some , and ; and the assumptions (i) and (ii) of Theorem 2.4 hold. Then (1.1) has a unique almost automorphic mild solution provided that

Proof.

For each , let

In view of which is compact in , by Theorem 2.4, there exists such that . On the other hand, by (2.2), we have

Since , and is nonincreasing. So Lemma 2.2 yields that . This means that maps into .

For each and , we have

which gives

In view of (2.19), is a contraction mapping. On the other hand, it is well known that is a Banach space under the supremum norm. Thus, has a unique fixed point , which satisfies

for all . Thus (1.1) has a unique almost automorphic mild solution.

In the case of , by following the proof of Theorem 2.5 and using the standard contraction principle, one can get the following conclusion.

Theorem 2.6.

Assume that is sectorial operator for some , and ; and the assumptions (i) and (ii) of Theorem 2.4 hold with , then (1.1) has a unique almost automorphic mild solution provided that

Remark 2.7.

Theorem 2.6 is due to [2, Theroem ] in the case of being almost automorphic in . Thus, Theorem 2.6 is a generalization of [2, Theroem ].

At last, we give an application to illustrate the abstract result.

Example 2.8.

Let us consider the following fractional relaxation-oscillation equation given by

with boundary conditions

where , , and

for some .

Let , with

and for and . Then (2.26) is transformed into (1.1). It is well known that is a sectorial operator for some , and . By [10, Example ], . Then . In addition, for each and ,

Since

by Theorem 2.5, there exists a unique almost automorphic mild solution to (2.26) provided that and is sufficiently small.

Remark 2.9.

In the above example, for any , is Lipschitz continuous about uniformly in with Lipschitz constant , this means that has a better Lipschitz continuity than (2.30). However, one cannot ensure the unique existence of almost automorphic mild solution to (2.26) when

by using Theorem 2.6. On the other hand, it is interesting to note that one can use Theorem 2.5 to obtain the existence in many cases under this restriction.

## References

Araya D, Lizama C:

**Almost automorphic mild solutions to fractional differential equations.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**69**(11):3692-3705. 10.1016/j.na.2007.10.004Cuevas C, Lizama C:

**Almost automorphic solutions to a class of semilinear fractional differential equations.***Applied Mathematics Letters*2008,**21**(12):1315-1319. 10.1016/j.aml.2008.02.001Cuesta E:

**Asymptotic behaviour of the solutions of fractional integro-differential equations and some time discretizations.***Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems*2007, 277-285.Lakshmikantham V:

**Theory of fractional functional differential equations.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**69**(10):3337-3343. 10.1016/j.na.2007.09.025Lakshmikantham V, Vatsala AS:

**Basic theory of fractional differential equations.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**69**(8):2677-2682. 10.1016/j.na.2007.08.042Mophou GM, N'GuÃ©rÃ©kata GM:

**Existence of the mild solution for some fractional differential equations with nonlocal conditions.***Semigroup Forum*2009,**79**(2):315-322. 10.1007/s00233-008-9117-xMophou GM, N'GuÃ©rÃ©kata GM, Valmorina V:

**Pseudo almost automorphic solutions of a neutral functional fractional differential equations.***International Journal of Evolution Equations*2009,**4:**129-139.Zhu X-X:

**A Cauchy problem for abstract fractional differential equations with infinite delay.***Communications in Mathematical Analysis*2009,**6**(1):94-100.Lee H, Alkahby H, N'GuÃ©rÃ©kata G:

**Stepanov-like almost automorphic solutions of semilinear evolution equations with deviated argument.***International Journal of Evolution Equations*2008,**3**(2):217-224.N'GuÃ©rÃ©kata GM, Pankov A:

**Stepanov-like almost automorphic functions and monotone evolution equations.***Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2008,**68**(9):2658-2667. 10.1016/j.na.2007.02.012Ding HS, Liang J, Xiao TJ:

**Almost automorphic solutions to nonautonomous semilinear evolution equations in Banach spaces.**preprint

## Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the referee for valuable suggestions and comments, which improved the quality of this paper. H. Ding acknowledges the support from the NSF of China, the NSF of Jiangxi Province of China (2008GQS0057), and the Youth Foundation of Jiangxi Provincial Education Department(GJJ09456). J. Liang and T. Xiao acknowledge the support from the NSF of China (10771202), the Research Fund for Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Applied Mathematics (08DZ2271900), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (2007035805).

## Author information

### Authors and Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Ding, HS., Liang, J. & Xiao, TJ. Almost Automorphic Solutions to Abstract Fractional Differential Equations.
*Adv Differ Equ* **2010**, 508374 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/508374

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/508374